- Position: Research Manager - Chemistry
BSc(Hons) PhD, Flinders University
- Phone: 08 8313 6600
- Fax: 08 8313 6601
- Since: 5 May 2003
Paul received his PhD in Chemistry from Flinders University (2000), where he undertook research into organic synthesis of bridged, bicyclic amines using free-radical techniques. For his post-doctoral research, Paul first worked at CSIRO Molecular Science division in Melbourne. Subsequently, his interest in aspects of molecular recognition and drug-discovery led him to take up a NHMRC-funded research position with the Department of Clinical Pharmacology at Flinders University, where he studied structure-function relationships of human drug-metabolising enzymes (2001-2003), before joining the Tannin team at the AWRI.
Phenolic and tannin chemistry related to colour and mouth-feel properties, structure-function relationships, molecular recognition, organic chemistry, role of oxygen and sulfur chemistry in winemaking.
Ongoing Research Projects:
- Discovery and measurement of chemicals that allow an objective assessment of quality in grapes
- Development of spectroscopic calibrations for measuring tannins in red grapes and wine
- Elucidating the mechanism, and ways of managing, protein haze in white wines
- Understanding extractability of wine macromolecules (tannins, proteins, polysaccharides) during fermentation
- Sensory characterisation of key wine compounds (phenolics, polysaccharides) for texture and taste characteristics
- Oxygen measurement and treatments for creating diverse wine styles
- Determining fundamental mechanisms and analytical method development for ‘stinky’ sulfur compounds in wine
- Providing technical expertise on the role of tannin in grape marc in reducing methane emission from ruminants
- Development of nano-and–biosensors for measurement of sulfite and malic acid in wine
Van Sluyter, S.C., McRae, J.M., Falconer, R.J., Smith, P.A., Bacic, A., Waters, E.J., and M. Marangon. Wine Protein Haze: Mechanisms of Formation and Advances in Prevention. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 63 (2015) 4020-4030
McRae, J.M., Ziora, Z.M., Kassara, S., Cooper, M.A., and P.A. Smith. Ethanol Concentration Influences the Mechanisms of Wine Tannin Interactions with Poly(L-proline) in Model Wine. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 63 (2015) 4345-4352
Bindon, K.A., Kassara, S., Hayasaka, Y., Schulkin, A. and P.A. Smith. Properties of Wine Polymeric Pigments Formed from Anthocyanin and Tannins Differing in Size Distribution and Subunit Composition. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 62 (2014) 11582-11593
McRae, J.M., M. Day, K. Bindon, S. Kassara, S. Schmidt, A. Schulkin, R. Kolouchova, and P.A. Smith. Effect of early oxygen exposure on red wine colour and tannins. Tetrahedron. 71 (2014) 3131-3137
Bindon, K., S. Kassara, W. Cynkar, E. Robinson, N. Scrimgeour, and P.A. Smith. Comparison of extraction protocolsto determine differences in wine-extractable tannin and anthocyanin in Vitis vinifera L. cv. Shiraz and Cabernet Sauvignon grapes. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 62 (2014) 4558-4570
Gawel, R., M. Day, S.C. Van Sluyter, H. Holt, E.J. Waters, and P. Smith. White wine taste and mouthfeel as affected by juice extraction and processing. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 62 (2014) 10008-10014
Gawel, R., A. Schulkin, P.A. Smith, and E.J. Waters. Taste and textural characters of mixtures of caftaric acid and Grape Reaction Product in model wine. Australian Journal of Grape and Wine Research, 20 (2014) 25-30
McRae, J.M., N. Kirby, H.D.T. Mertens, S. Kassara, and P.A. Smith. Measuring the molecular dimensions of wine tannins: Comparison of small-angle X-ray scattering, gel-permeation chromatography and mean degree of polymerization. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 62 (2014) 7216-7224
Ruiz-Garcia, Y., P. Smith, and K. Bindon. Selective extraction of polysaccharide affects the adsorption of proanthocyanidin by grape cell walls. Carbohydrate Polymers, 114 (2014) 102-114
Bindon, K., M. McCarthy, and P.A. Smith. Development of wine colour and non-bleachable pigments during the fermentation and ageing of (Vitis vinifera L. cv.) Cabernet Sauvignon wines differing in anthocyanin and tannin concentration. LWT - Food Science and Technology, 59 (2014) 923-932
Bindon, K.A., S.H. Madani, P. Pendleton, P.A. Smith, and J.A. Kennedy. Factors affecting skin tannin extractability in ripening grapes. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 62 (2014) 1130-1141
Gawel, R., S.C. Van Sluyter, P.A. Smith, and E.J. Waters. Effect of pH and alcohol on perception of phenolic character in white wine. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture, 64 (2013) 425-429
Guerrero, R.F., P. Smith, and K.A. Bindon. Application of insoluble fibers in the fining of wine phenolics. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 61 (2013) 4424-4432
Holt, H., D. Cozzolino, J. McCarthy, C. Abrahamse, S. Holt, M. Solomon, P. Smith, P.J. Chambers, and C. Curtin. Influence of yeast strain on Shiraz wine quality indicators. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 165 (2013) 302-311
Marangon, M., V.J. Stockdale, P. Munro, T. Trethewey, A. Schulkin, H.E. Holt, and P.A. Smith. Addition of carrageenan at different stages of winemaking for white wine protein stabilization. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 61 (2013) 6516-6524
McRae, J.M., S. Kassara, J.A. Kennedy, E.J. Waters, and P.A. Smith. Effect of wine pH and bottle closure on tannins. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 61 (2013) 11618-11627
Viviers, M.Z., M.E. Smith, E. Wilkes, and P. Smith. Effects of five metals on the evolution of hydrogen sulfide, methanethiol, and dimethyl sulfide during anaerobic storage of Chardonnay and Shiraz wines. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 61 (2013) 12385-12396
Bindon, K.A. and P.A. Smith. Comparison of the affinity and selectivity of insoluble fibres and commercial proteins for wine proanthocyanidins. Food Chemistry, 136 (2013) 917-928
Carew, A.L., P. Smith, D.C. Close, C. Curtin, and R.G. Dambergs. Yeast effects on pinot noir wine phenolics, color, and tannin composition. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 61 (2013) 9892-9898
Cozzolino, D., W.U. Cynkar, R.G. Dambergs, N. Shah, and P. Smith. In situ measurement of soil chemical composition by Near-Infrared Spectroscopy: A tool toward sustainable vineyard management. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 44 (2013) 1610-1619
Marangon, M., Van Sluyter, S.C., Robinson, E.M.C., Muhlack, R.A., Holt, H.E., Haynes, P.A., Godden, P.W., Smith, P.A., Waters E,J. (2012) Degradation of white wine haze proteins by Aspergillopepsin I and II during juice flash pasteurization. Food Chemistry 135(3):1157-65
Shah, N., Cynkar, W., Smith, P. and Cozzolino, D. (2010) Use of attenuated total reflectance mid-infrared for rapid and real-time analysis of compositional parameters in commercial white grape juice. J. Agric. Food Chem. 58, 3279-3283.
Cynkar, W., Dambergs, R., Smith, P. and Cozzolino, D. (2010) Classification of Tempranillo wines according to geographic origin: Combination of mass spectrometry based electronic nose and chemometrics. Analytica Chimica Acta 660, 227-231.
Bindon, K. A., Smith, P. A. and Kennedy, J. A. (2010) Interaction between grape-derived proanthocyanidins and cell wall material. 1. Effect on proanthocyanidin composition and molecular mass. J. Agric. Food Chem. 58, 2520-2528.
Cozzolino, D., Holdstock, M., Dambergs, R. G., Cynkar, W. U. and Smith, P. A. (2009) Mid-infrared spectroscopy and multivariate analysis: A tool to discriminate between organic and non-organic wines grown in Australia. Food Chem. 116, 761-765.
Sorich M.J.; Smith P.A.; Miners JO, Mackenzie P.I.; McKinnon R.A. Recent advances in UDP glucuronosyltransferase substrate in silico modelling. (2008) Current Drug Metabol.. 9 (1), 60-69
Jeffery, D.W., Mercurio, M.D., Herderich, M.J., Hayasaka, Y., Smith, P.A. (2008) Rapid Isolation of Red Wine Polymeric Polyphenols by Solid-Phase Extraction. J. Agric. Food Chem. 56: 2571 – 2580.
Jeffery, D.W., Parker, M., Smith, P.A. (2008) Flavonol composition of Australian red and white wines determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Aust. J. Grape Wine Res. 14 (3), 153-161
Mercurio, M.D., Smith, P.A. (2008). Tannin quantification in red grapes and wine – Comparison of polysaccharide- and protein-based tannin precipitation techniques and their ability to model wine astringency. J. Agric. Food Chem. 56 (14), 5528-5537
Cozzolino, D., Cynkar, W. U., Dambergs, R. G., Mercurio, M. D. and Smith, P. A. (2008) Measurement of condensed tannins and dry matter in red grape homogenates using near infrared spectroscopy and partial least squares. J. Agric. Food Chem. 56, 7631-7636.
Mercurio, M.D.; Dambergs, R.G.; Herderich, M.J.; Smith, P.A. (2007) High throughput analysis of red wine and grape phenolics adaptation and validation of methyl cellulose precipitable tannin assay and modified somers color assay to a rapid 96 well plate format. J. Agric. Food Chem.
Parker, M.; Smith, P.A.; Birse, M.; Francis, I.L.; Kwiatkowski, M.J.; Lattey, K.A.; B., L.; Herderich, M.J. (2007) The effect of pre- and post-ferment additions of grape derived tannin on Shiraz wine sensory properties and phenolic composition. Aust. J. Grape Wine Res. 13(1): 30-37.
Sarneckis, C.J.; Dambergs, R.G.; Jones, P.; Mercurio, M.; Herderich, M.J.; Smith, P.A. (2006) Quantification of condensed tannins by precipitation with methyl cellulose: development and validation of an optimised tool for grape and wine analysis. Aust. J. Grape Wine Res. 12(1): 39-49.